Maharashtra is a state in the western region of India and is the nation's third largest state and also the world's second-most populous sub-national entity . It has over 110 million inhabitants and its capital, Mumbai , has a population of approximately 18 million. Nagpur serves as second capital as well as winter capital of the state. Maharashtra's business opportunities along with its potential to offer a higher standard of living attract migrants from all over India .
Ancient and medieval Maharashtra included the empires of the Satavahana dynasty , Rashtrakuta dynasty , Western Chalukyas , Mughals and Marathas . Spread over 118,809 sq mi (307,710 km2), it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west and the Indian states of Karnataka , Telangana , Goa , Gujarat , Chhattisgarh , Madhya Pradesh and the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli . The major rivers of the state are Godavari , Krishna , Narmada and Tapi . The state has several tourist destinations including the popular Hindu places of pilgrimage, Pandharpur , Dehu and Alandi . Places with wide appeal include Hazur Sahib Nanded at Nanded , and Saibaba shrine at Shirdi . Maharashtra is the most urbanized state in India, with large cities besides the capital Mumbai such as Pune , Nashik , Nagpur and Aurangabad .
Maharashtra is one of the wealthiest and the most developed states in India, contributing 25% of the country's industrial output and 23.2% of its GDP (2010–11). As of 2011, the state had a per capita income of ₹ 1.0035 lakh (US$1,500), more than the national average of ₹ 0.73 lakh (US$1,100). Its GDP per capita crossed the ₹ 1.20 lakh (US$1,800) threshold for the first time in 2013, making it one of the richest states in India. However As of 2014, the GDP per capita got reduced to ₹ 1.03 lakh (US$1,600) Agriculture and industries are the largest parts of the state's economy. Major industries include chemical products, electrical and non-electrical machinery, textiles , petroleum and allied products.